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Antoni Starczewski

- 波兰 现代艺术家 - (1924 - 2000)

Antoni Starczewski

安东尼·斯塔采斯基

Antoni Starczewski(1924-2000)为波兰20世纪最杰出的视觉艺术家之一,曾毕业并任教波兰罗兹(Łódź)国立高等视觉艺术学院,拜于名师——波兰20世纪前期跨界时代最杰出的艺术家和艺术理论家WładysławStrzemiński之下。

Starczewski是一位多才多艺的艺术家,为波兰少数能与所谓“潮流”联系在一起的艺术家之一,但这并不足以涵盖他的风格。他运用许多媒介:图形,雕塑(特别是陶瓷),织物,绘画等等进行艺术探索,作品多为重复而图像或物件组成,其作品有结构主义与几何学的相似,同时又富含杰出和独到的创造性,这使得它们不能被分配到任何已知的趋势中。

1959年,开创性的项目奠定了他早期的风格—— 罗兹大学图书馆的巨大的陶瓷浮雕,题为“两只手的构图”,灵感源于指挥家的手部动作。这件创造并非偶然,因为音乐是Starczewski的高尚爱好。他练习小提琴,并在音乐中投入了巨大的时间,而节奏是Starczewski后来作品的一个不变的特征,他将节奏与字符作为一种“视觉语言”用其进行交流与沟通。因为他相信“言语已经过时”,所以就以“固有信息变为直接载体”的形式,用视觉标志取而代之。

Starczewski的“字母表”的构成由陶瓷或者木制模具、抽象符号、叶子、蔬菜和水果(真蔬果或瓷器模具)、元音 ——写下来的或真实的声音(小提琴演奏出的)、单个单词或一组词组相同的词根、报纸栏、划掉的文本、标点符号、各种物体和碎片组成。1963年,他创造了第一个视觉“字母表”,约30个“字符”。或可将称为是一系列的“语素”,以陶瓷模具的媒介呈现。这些“字母表”是后来Starczewski艺术作品的构建核心。直到1972年,他完成了另外一个“字母表” —— 其包含明显的荒诞元素 —— 土豆,胡萝卜甚至洋葱形状的瓷器模具。这些模具经过错综复杂地排列后,有时甚至与真的面包卷或蔬菜一起,构成了他的装置艺术作品 ——桌子(Table)系列。

其对语言的“字符化诠释”如上所说,是有意而为之,这些媒介经轻雕或浮雕处理,构成重复却个体不同的元素。表达着布置上的抒情与音乐上的和谐,这个也是他的的作品特征。而他的“字符系列”则使用不同的字符,有时还有盲文。有时候,他们是相同的,字母A或B或上面所提到的元音,A,E,I,O,U ——黑底白字或白底黑字。总是和谐,有节奏,美丽,神秘。其中重复的字符:加号或字母,即使他们不是手写的,每次他们都也有点不同。这种书写艺术,没有文字可读,其意义、信息的形状和节奏都是加密的,所以通常被理解成字符与节奏诗歌谱。

 

Starczewski参加过许多展览,并经常获奖,特别是在国际陶瓷和图形比赛中。他在法恩扎的国际陶瓷比赛中获得金牌奖项,并多次参加在洛桑举办的Tapestry Beinnial。 1979年,他在东京的图形双年展上获得了国际大奖。艺术家的作品在国际博物馆收藏中有代表性,其中包括英国伦敦泰特美术馆; 波兰罗兹国立博物馆; 意大利佛罗伦萨乌菲兹美术馆; 法国巴黎摩登现代艺术博物馆; 法国巴黎国家图书馆; 荷兰阿姆斯特丹市立现代艺术博物馆; 英国伦敦维多利亚与艾伯特博物馆; 荷兰鹿特丹博伊曼斯·范伯宁恩美术馆等等。。

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Table with an arrangement of natural cucumbers, 1973/2014, cucumbers, table, tablecloth 140×100 cm

Antoni Starczewski (1924-2000) was a Polish visual artist who lived and work in Łódź, Poland.
He studied at the State Higher School of Visual Arts in Łódź under Władysław Strzemiński, the most outstanding artist and art theoretician of the Polish 20th century avant-garde of the interwar era.

His artistic activity included ceramics, weaving, graphic art and drawing. In his art, he developed a unique system which involved an integration of the form of an object with its artistic function. His creative explorations focused on the structural aspect of the work of art, and on structure as a carrier of specific information. He was one of the most distinguished Polish artists of the 20th century.

In 1959, he completed his groundbreaking project – a monumental ceramic bas relief for the University of Łódź library, entitled Composition for Two Hands, resulting from his interest in sign language, and based, as he explained, on the analysis of a conductor’s hand movements. He also worked on a project involving the translation of visual signs into sound during his second scholarship in Paris in 1962 in cooperation with the composer André Almuro. The project evolved into the exhibition shown at Galerie Prismes in Paris.

In 1963, Starczewski created his first visual “alphabet”, or a collection of morphemes – ceramic moulders which he then used to construct his artistic messages.

In 1972, he completed another alphabet – incorporating an obvious ludic element – consisting in porcelain moulds of potatoes, carrots and onions. The artist employed these moulds to assemble his installations – “tables” on which they were intricately arranged, sometimes alongside real bread rolls and vegetables.

Starczewski’s “alphabet” consisted of ceramic and wooden moulders, abstract signs, leaves, vegetables and fruits (real and cast in porcelain), vowels – both written down and uttered aloud – sounds played out on a violin, single words and clusters of words having the same word root, newspaper columns, crossed-out texts, punctuation signs, various objects and debris.

The allusions to linguistic forms were not coincidental, as he approached art as a ground for communication, as a language. He believed that “words are obsolete”, but they can be replaced by visual signs, whose form is a direct carrier of information inherent therein. It was the search for and construction of such language to which he devoted his mature work.

Starczewski was awarded gold medals at the international ceramic competition in Faenza and repeatedly took part in the Tapestry Beinnial in Lausanne. In 1979 he received Grand Prix International at the Graphics Biennial in Tokyo.

Work by the artist is represented in museum collections internationally, including
Tate Gallery, London; Muzeum Sztuki, Łódź; Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence; Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris; Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris;
Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam; Victoria & Albert Museum, London;
Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam.

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Hand text, 1976, linocut, paper

Selected exhibitions 精选展览
2018Blick Wendungen – Museum Junge Kunst, Frankfurt/Oder (法兰克福)
2017Avant-garde artist Strzemiński – Municipal Gallery of Art(罗兹)

Living matter – Galeria 86, Lodz (罗兹)独展

2016Illegibility. Palimpsests. – Pan Tadeusz Museum, Wroclaw(弗罗茨瓦夫)

Illegibility. The Contexts Of Script – Art Stations Foundation by Grażyna Kulczyk, Posen(波森)

2014Antoni Starczewski – rytmy biologiczne – EGO Gallery , Posen(波森)独展
2013The Splendor of Textiles- Zacheta National Gallery of Art(华沙)
2010Fragmenty życia – Mazowieckie Centrum Sztuki Współczesnej „ELEKTROWNIA”, Radom(拉多姆)
2009Awake And Dream / Svegliati E Sogna / Obudźcie Się, Aby Śnić – Signum Foundation Palazzo Donà, Venedig(威尼斯)
2007Collection of Contemporary Art in Center for Polish Sculpture in Oronsko – Biuro Wystaw Artystycznych w Katowicach, Katowice(卡托维兹)
2003“Der Text ist eine Lüge” – Dany Keller Galerie, München(慕尼黑)
2002Antoni Starczewski 1924-2000. malarstwo, rze?ba ceramiczna,tkanina,grafika,rysunek,instalacje, nagrania,dokumentacja – Muzeum Sztuki in Lodz, Main Building, Lodz(罗兹)独展
200149th International Art Exhibition Venice Biennale / Biennale di Venezia – La Biennale di Venezia, Venedig (威尼斯)
1999La Gravure en relief – Centre de la Gravure et de l’Image imprimée de la, La Louvière(比利时)
1996Galerie Ucher(科隆)
1993Z Chelmskiej Kolekcji – Galeria Rzezby, Warschau
1992Lyon, Łódź : Muzeum Sztuki w Łodzi, 1931-1992 – Musée d’Art Contemporain Lyon, Lyon(里昂)
19833. Międzynarodowe Biennale Małe Formy Grafiki – International Triennial of Small Graphic Forms, Poland, Lodz(罗兹)
Présences polonaises – Centre Pompidou, Paris(巴黎)
1981Das Papier – Leopold-Hoesch-Museum(迪伦)

IX Exhibition of Polish Graphics – Zacheta – National Gallery of Art, Warschau(华沙)

1980Die Kunst Osteuropas im 20. Jahrhundert – Kunstmuseum Bochum (波鸿)独展
19793rd Biennale of Sydney: European Dialogue – Biennale of Sydney, Sydney, NSW(悉尼)
1962Galerie Prismes (巴黎)
1959 Composition for Two Hands – University of Łódź library(罗兹)
Collector Institution 收藏机构
MOCA – Museum of Contemporary Art 洛杉矶现代艺术博物馆(洛杉矶)
Tate Gallery, London 伦敦泰特美术馆(伦敦)
Victoria & Albert Museum, London 伦敦维多利亚与艾伯特博物馆(伦敦)
Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris 巴黎现代艺术博物馆(巴黎)
Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris 法国国家图书馆(巴黎)
Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence 乌菲兹美术馆(佛罗伦萨)
Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam 阿姆斯特丹市立现代艺术博物馆(阿姆斯特丹)
Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam.博伊曼斯·范伯宁恩美术馆(鹿特丹)
Centre de la Gravure et de l’Image imprimée, La Louvière比利时拉卢维耶尔的博物馆(比利时)
Miejska Galeria Sztuki Lodz, Lodz罗兹市政美术馆(罗兹)
Muzeum Sztuki Łódź 罗兹艺术博物馆(罗兹)
Museum of Modern Art in Warsaw 华沙现代博物馆(华沙)
Awards 得奖经历
金奖Faenza international ceramic competition (法恩扎)
 国际奖 Graphics Biennial in Tokyo 1979(东京)

ART WORKS

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